Tissue-resident memory (TRM) CD8+ T cells permanently reside within non-lymphoid tissues where they provide a first-line of defense against invading pathogens. How-ever, the mechanisms regulating their development and the long-term functional consequences following their activation in situ are poorly defined. Here, I use a model of epicutaneous Vaccinia virus infection to investigate two main research questions regarding the development and function of TRM CD8+ T cells. I begin by describing the role that antigen recognition within the skin microenvironment plays in the development of TRM CD8+ T cells. Next, I determine how repeated antigen encounters by mature TRM CD8+ T cells impacts the composition and function of the TRM population.